Components of Food and the Physiological Functions

Components of Food and Physiological functions of These Components

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Components of food and its Physiological functions are immense.  To have a fit and healthy body we should know about the components of food and their importance. Food components are the main sources of energy for the human body. Each food contains a combination of many nutrients. And very few foods contain only one component in one food. Food can be divided into 6 types on the basis of its components- Carbohydrate, Protein, Fat, Vitamin, Mineral, and Water.

Components of Food and the Physiological Functions

Components of Food and the Physiological Functions of these Components

Among these, carbohydrates, proteins are nutritious foods for body nutrition, growth and energy production. Fat and Carbohydrate are considered as energy producer. Protein-rich components known as food for bodybuilding. Vitamin, minerals and water are components for body maintenance help to prevent diseases.


Content in this article

  1. Components of Food and Physiological functions
  2. Carbohydrates
  3. Protein
  4. Fat or Lipid
  5. Vitamin
  6. Mineral
  7. Water
  8. Conclusion
  9. References

Components of Food and Physiological functions

We all know, food is the main element for the life force of living things. Our physical fitness and also sickness depend on food. So we must have knowledge about food and its components to live a healthy life. Let’s know about the components of food for our long and healthy lives. You will find what components are available in different foods and how these are important for us to have healthy life from the below discussion.


Carbohydrates

Carbohydrate is the main food for human. Carbohydrate is formed with carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. It has no color and smell. It tastes sweetened.

Carbohydrate

function of carbohydrates

The types of carbohydrate are as below. These are from various sources.

Plant Source

Carbohydrates that we get from plants-

Starch

Paddy, wheat, corn and other crop grains are main source of starch. Besides these, potato, red potato and arum are the source of starch.

Glucose

It is less sweetened than sugar. This carbohydrate is available in grapes, apples, carrots and dates.

Fructose

It is known as “Fruit Carbohydrate”. It is available in sweet fruits like mango, papaya, banana, orange and in the honey found in flowers.

Sucrose

The sources of sucrose are the juice of sugar cane, sugar, fruits and honey.

Cellulose

Mango, banana, watermelon, nuts, dried fruits and all types of vegetables are the source of cellulose.

Animal Source

Lactose or Milk Carbohydrate

Lactose is the major carbohydrate in the milk. This carbohydrate is available in cow or goat milk and in the milk of most species.

Glycogen

Glycogen is available in the meat and liver of animals and birds like cock and pigeon.

Physiological functions of carbohydrates in the body

The function of carbohydrate is inevitable for the human body. It increases the working capability of the body and produces heat and energy. The energy, needed for the metabolism of the body is produced from the oxidation of carbohydrate foods during absorption. 4.1 kilocalorie energy is produced from per gram carbohydrate digestion. Glycogen delivers energy for physical activity of living things. Cellulose is indigestible natural carbohydrate. It is full of fiber. It participates for DNA and RNA formation. Moreover, protein and fat are synthesized from carbohydrate.

The energy in food is measured as food calorie or kilo-calorie. Calorie is the unit of energy. The heat and energy, produced from the oxidation one-gram food are called the calorie of food. The ‘food calorie’ of food means how much heat will be released from the complete oxidation of the food.

According to the nutritionists, 58-60% of the daily requirement of calorie of the human body should be consumed from carbohydrate type foods. 4 to 6-gram carbohydrate should be consumed for per kilogram weight. And an adult person should intake minimum 300 gram carbohydrate type foods daily.

Carbohydrate deficiency diseases

Both, less and excess carbohydrate consumption is harmful to health. Malnutrition occurs for carbohydrate deficiency. Metabolism process is hampered for reduction of carbohydrate in blood. The symptom of hypoglycemia occurs for the lessening of carbohydrate level in blood. The symptoms are

  • Hungry Feel,
  • Nausea,
  • Excess Sweating,
  • Fluctuation of Heart Beats.

Simple carbohydrate is much important for human body nutrition. Human body can absorb only simple carbohydrate. To get rid of diseases, due to carbohydrate deficiency, we need to take required amount of carbohydrate daily. Carbohydrate can be digested easily among carbohydrate, fat and protein. Carbohydrate provides energy producing heat in the body within very few moments just after the absorption. The requirement of carbohydrate depends on age, body weight, height and physical activity level. Excess carbohydrate is stored in the body as fat if it is consumed more than the requirement of our body. As a result, obesity and diabetes may occur.


Protein

Protein is formed with four elements- carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Protein turns into amino acid after the digestion in the body. Amino Acid is the unit of Protein formation. It is crucial for the growth of our bodies, filling of erosion and balance of nitrogen. These acids are collected from food.

Protein

Physiological functions of Protein in the body

Proteins are two types on the basis of its origin.

Animal Protein

The protein, obtained from animals is animal protein. Fish, meat, egg, milk and cheese are obtained from animals.

Plant

The protein, obtained from plants is plant protein. Pulses, Seeds of broad beans, peanuts, nuts are the source of plant protein.

20 types of amino acids are found in the human body. Eight amino acids- isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine; among all are considered as mandatory for the human body.  The nutritious value of animal protein is much as these amino acids found in animal protein. Again, the protein that has much nutritious value is available in pulses, peanuts, soybean and wheat.

Physiological functions of Protein in the body

Protein is obvious for bodybuilding. Maximum components of formation of body cells are protein based. Human bones, muscles, hair are build up with protein. Protein controls the formation and action of body cells.

The daily requirement of protein for a normal adult person is 1 gram protein for per kilogram body weight’. It means if a person’s weight is 57 Kilogram he needs 57 grams Protein daily. On this context, intake of the right amount of protein daily can keep us fit and healthy. Kids, growing up boys and girl should intake 3-4 gram daily and lactating mother should consume 2-3 gram. As protein helps us to build up the body we should pay attention to the quantity of protein.

Lack of amino acid in the body is injurious. Many symptoms may occur as a result of insufficiency of animal protein; such as nausea, raising of organic acid level in urine, imbalance of nitrogen etc.

Protein insufficiency problems occur in the body of a child for the inadequate presence of organic or mixed protein in food. It hampers the normal formation and growth of the body. Children suffer from malnutrition if body growth is stopped or discontinued.  Kwashiorkor and marasmus disease can attack children.

Symptom of Kwashiorkor

  • Distaste for food.
  • Muscles become thin and weak. Hair and skin lose its color and smoothness.
  • Diarrhea may attack and edema occurs.
  • Tummy becomes large.

Mental stagnation occurs even it can be healed with treatment. If the disease is severe a child can even die.

Symptoms of Marasmus

  • The inadequacy of both protein and calorie result interruption of body growth.
  • The body becomes gaunt.
  • Skin becomes lose and rough.
  • Body weight decreases.

The condition is worse for children. Besides, disease prevention reduces and anemia occurs for protein deficiency in adult.


Fat or Lipid

Fat is formatted with fatty acid and glycerol. About 20 types of fatty acids are found in food. Feature of fat depends on fatty acids. Solid fat is a completely fatty acid. It is solid in normal temperature; for instance, fat of fish or meat. Liquid fats are known as oil. These are liquid in normal temperature; such as soybean, mustard oil.

fats

functions of fats

Fats are two types on the basis of the source.

Animal Fat

Meat with fat, butter, ghee, cheese, yolk is the source of animal fat.

Plant Fat

Various types of oil collected from plants such as mustard, soybean, parmesan, wheat, coconut, sunflower, and palm are a source of fat. Besides, pee nuts, pistachios, Chinese almonds are the source of fat.

Physiological functions of fats in the body

Fat provides the following support in the human body.

  1. Fat among all foods produce the most heat and energy.
  2. It is essential for body nutrition and growth.
  3. It prevents the wastage of energy from the body and works as the storehouse of food for the future.
  4. It keeps the freshness and smoothness of skin and prevents skin disease.
  5. Fatty components absorb soluble vitamins; vitamin A, D, and E.

It is necessary to have food containing 15-gram animal protein and 10-gram plant protein daily. Baby foods should contain much fat. 10% to 15% of the calorie requirement of an adult person should be derived from fat because it helps to keep the comeliness of the body. Insufficiency of fat for a long time may cause of erosion of protein and weight loss. Again excess protein hinders the blood circulation in the body. For this reason, many diseases attack in fat bodies. So, we must intake required fat daily.


Vitamin

Body needs another food component for natural bodybuilding and growth, even with the presence of required carbohydrate and protein in food. This component is a vitamin. Usually, normal food contains a small quantity of vitamin. Some vitamins are water soluble and some are soluble in fat.

  1. Vitamin A, K and are soluble in fat.
  2. Vitamin B-Complex and C vitamin are soluble in water.
Vitamin

Physiological functions of Vitamin

Vitamin is crucial to keep the body fit and natural growth. Interruption of various processes including erosion and growth of body may cause vitamin deficiency. Vitamin is a compound of organic nature.

Physiological functions of Vitamin

  1. Intake of a vitamin is important for the maintenance of the skin, the correct functioning of the vision.
  2. It is essential in the absorption of calcium and phosphorus, which is necessary for bone mineralization.
  3. Vitamin emphasizes its antioxidant function. It is also used for the formation of red blood cells and has acted in the peripheral circulation.
  4. It increases the absorption of iron, has an important antioxidant function, intervenes in the metabolites of amino acids.
  5. It prevents the appearance of infections, acts on blood cholesterol and participates in the healing of wounds.

Let’s know Different Types of Vitamins and Their Functions.

Vitamin A

High quantity of vitamin A is available in animal source foods; such as egg, milk. butter, cheese, liver and oily fish like codfishes. Vegetables with full of carotenes like red spinach, arum spinach, jute spinach, water spinach, carrot, sweet gourd, carrot, ladies finger, cabbage, peanuts and various fruits such as mango, ripe papaya, jackfruit etc.

Physiological functions of Vitamin A

Vitamin helps the body in the following way.

  1. Vitamin ensures the action of natural formation and the growth of the body.
  2. It keeps various body tissues such as skin and cornea of eyes normal and fresh.
  3. It keeps the bone and teeth formation fit and the game healthy.
  4. It keeps eyesight fit and prevents night-blind disease.
  5. It prevents disease infection in the body.

Teen-age boys and girls, adult men and women, pregnant women need 2500iu vitamin daily.

Vitamin A Deficiency, Diseases and Precaution

Night-Blind Disease

The symptom of the disease is; the patient cannot see especially under low light or dim light.  The disease attacks children much. The patient can be blind if the condition is continuing for a long time. Feeding the affected child green vegetables and colorful fruits is important. Vitamin A capsule helps to protect the disease. Vitamin A Capsule dosage is given to the children in vaccination days of our country Bangladesh.

Xerophthalmia

Xerophthalmia is a medical condition in which the eye fails to produce tears. The curtain of the cornea of eyes is hampered with the deficiency of vitamin A.  A dry layer covers the cornea. The eye becomes dry and stops water secretion.  Eyes cannot tolerate light. The eyelids become swollen. If the patient gets treatment on time, it can be cured. If it is not, the child can become blind.

Besides, natural growth is interrupted for vitamin A deficiency. Snivel, cough, scar, influenza may attack.

To get relief from these diseases we should consume food contains vitamin A daily.

Vitamin D

Our body creates vitamin D from direct sunlight on our skin. This vitamin synthesized in the skin with the help of ultraviolet ray of sunlight. Vitamin D is found only from an animal source. Yolk, small fishes, liver, milk and butter is the source of vitamin D. Besides, it is found in cabbage and oily fishes.

Physiological functions of Vitamin D

  1. Controls the level of phosphorus in the body.
  2. Helps to build up bone and teeth.
  3. Helps for bone formation and growth.
  4. Helps to absorb calcium and magnesium.
  5. Increases ability of disease protection.

Daily Requirements of Vitamin D

  • Adult: 100iu(International Unit)
  • Children: 400iu (International Unit)
  • Pregnant Women: 400iu (International Unit)

Vitamin D Deficiency Diseases

Rickets is a childhood disorder that attacks the children for vitamin D deficiency. Their hands and legs may become curved and crippled. The children who grew up in dark and wet room may suffer from this disease. Adult people suffer from osteoporosis.

Friends, we need to follow some rules as the problems cannot touch our loved ones. We know, sunlight helps to get vitamin D; so we must keep our babies under sunlight after massaging oil. We must feed our babies food full of calcium and vitamin D. Besides, need to feed them foods full of other vitamins. We can take supplements if it is necessary.

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is an essential vitamin for our body. Intake of vitamin E increases the immunity. Vitamin E reduces the risk of heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, muscle pain, cold attack, and other physical issues. All types of plant oil especially palm oil is the source of vitamin E. Vitamin E usually available in all types of food.  Besides these, oil of grain seeds, cotton seeds’ oil, sunflower seeds’ oil, lettuce, crop grain, corn frown, and dark green leaves are the great source of vitamin E. So, add these foods in your daily diet.

Physiological functions of Vitamin E

Vitamin E is an anti-oxidant, store the fat in the artery and keeps the skin healthy. Let’s see other functions of vitamin E in our body.

  1. It helps in cell building.
  2. It participates in various action and reaction of the human body and removes infertility.
  3. It is very rare to have vitamin E deficiency and disease for the deficiency of it.
  4. It fights against the aging of cells.

Death of fetus in the uterus may occur for vitamin D deficiency. So, children, teenagers, and adult people should take food with 10-30 milligram vitamin E. 100-400 it can be taken for much support. You can take vitamin E supplement with the doctor’s prescription.  Vitamin E is available in the market in the form of syrup, tablet and capsule. It is must to get a doctor’s advice before taking vitamin E.

Water Soluble Vitamin| Vitamin B Complex

These are some vitamins which are soluble in water which include Vitamin B complex. It is essential for the body and it is must to have this vitamin in daily food.  Many diseases can attack the insufficiency of this vitamin. Let’s see the nutritious value of this vitamin.

Eight B Vitamins are known as vitamin B Complex. These help foods to be transformed into energy. Vitamin B Complex is essential for natural growth, blood cell, hormone and nerves system.  8 vitamins of vitamin B Complex are-

  1. Thiamine (B1)
  2. Riboflavin(B2)
  3. Niacin(B3)
  4. Pantothenic Acid(B5)
  5. Pyridoxine (B6)
  6. Biotin(B7)
  7. Folate(B9)
  8. Cobalamin (B12)

Physiological functions of Vitamin B Complex

Vitamin B Complex is crucial for normal body health. These can be taken as a supplement and these are also found in foods. Let us know the source of these vitamins and their Physiological functions.

B complex is found almost in all the food. Enough quantity of vitamin E is available in vegetables and fruits. But, it is necessary to intake milk and egg or vitamin B 12.

Vitamin B 1 (Thiamine)

Rice, diced with husking pedal, pulses, oilseeds, liver, fresh fruits are a source of this vitamin. Small quantity of this vitamin is available in animals like liver, egg, milk and fish. The main purpose of this vitamin is to release the energy participating in the metabolism of carbohydrate. It also helps to keep the normal hungry feel and nervous system. Deficiency of vitamin B1 may cause Beriberi, weakness, abnormal heart beating, body pain.

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

Plenty of Vitamin Riboflavin is available in liver, egg, milk, green vegetables, soft tip of the tree, sprouted seeds. Leap of lip and palate, sore in corner of lip, rough skin may occur for vitamin B2 deficiency. Water release from eyes, trouble to open eyes in bright light, dryness in the throat may occur for the vitamin B insufficiency.

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

Itching, rough skin, weakness, diarrhea occurs for vitamin B3 deficiency.

Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)

Meat, liver, pulses, nuts, oil seeds, chickpeas, vegetables are the source of vitamin B5. Skin problems may occur for the deficiency of this vitamin.

Vitamin B6(Pyridoxine)

Plenty of vitamin B6 is available in rice, fish, vegetables, chickpeas, kidney, mushrooms, egg yolk. It helps to produce energy. Usually, high blood pressure, anemia, depression and skin problems occur for the deficiency of this vitamin.

Vitamin B7 (Biotin)

The mental and physical growth of children is interrupted for the vitamin B 7 deficiency.

Vitamin B9 (Folate)

Blood loss and the distortion of a child in the mother womb occur for Vitamin B9 insufficiency.

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin or Cyanocobalamin)

Shortness of blood and mental problem occur for the deficiency of it. Fish is a vital source of this vitamin. Fish cell can store vitamin with the help of bacteria. It is available in sardine, salmon, and fish with slough. Besides, liver, milk, fish, meat, egg, cheese, kidney etc. It helps to produce and increase of red blood cell. It also helps to increase white blood cell and red blood cell.

One of the vital sources of vitamin B is liver. Beef liver is full of B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B9 and B12. One piece of 68-gram liver can fulfill more than half of the daily requirement of B6, B9, B12. Folate (B9) helps to prevent birth defects. B6 helps to have good sleep and produce a certain hormone to control temper. B12 helps to build up red blood cell. Soya milk, oats, nuts, seeds, spinach, banana are a good source of vitamin B12.

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

Vitamin C is found in fresh vegetables and fruits. Gooseberry, tomato, orange, pineapple, guava are the source of vitamin C. Plenty of vitamin C is available in reddish spinach, cauliflower, bitter gourd, basil leaves, coriander leaves, and green chili.

Physiological functions of Vitamin C

Vitamin C works as follows_

  1. It makes the structure strong, attaching all the cells of skin, bone and teeth with each other.
  2. It reconstructs the wounds.
  3. Keeps teeth and gum strong.
  4. It plays a vital function in the metabolism process of fat, protein and amino acid.
  5. Prevents diseases.
  6. Helps to prevent skin disease, prevent the infection of throat and nose.

Vitamin C Deficiency Diseases

The below symptoms are exposed to severe deficiency of vitamin C.

  • Bone construction cannot be stronger. As a result, the bone becomes weak and fragile
  • Skin becomes rough, itches. Sore does not recover soon.
Scurvy Disease
  • Gum becomes soft with swollen. Tooth root becomes lose and blood flows from there.
  • Enamel of teeth removes away and tooth loss may occur. Children and old age people suffer much with this.
  • Gland swollen and pain in the mouth occur. Bleeding cannot be stopped easily. Recovery of sore takes time.
  • Other diseases specially cough and cold attacks easily.

Vitamins are responsible for performing very specific functions in the human body. Some act like hormones; others intervene in cellular reactions essential for proper functioning of the tissues; others are responsible for processing nutrients such as proteins, fats or carbohydrates; certain vitamins are used to produce blood cells or genetic material.

We must intake fresh sour type food daily with our required food. Besides, intake of vitamin C tablet helps to get rid of this disease. In this case, it is mandatory to get a doctor’s advice.

We get food for our body nutrition. The food is mandatory for our fit and healthy life. So we need to have food containing all the above-discussed components. If we don’t, our bodies become weak and affected by diseases.


Mineral

Minerals or mineral salt are crucial like a vitamin for the normal growth and nutrition of the human body. It mainly helps in cell construction. Human gets minerals mainly getting plant food. We usually fulfill our requirement of minerals with vegetables, fruits, milk, egg, fish and drinking water.

Minerals have numerous functions in the human organism. Sodium, potassium and chlorine are present as salts in body fluids, where they have the physiological function of maintaining osmotic pressure.

Minerals

Physiological functions of Minerals

Minerals are part of the structure of many tissues. For example, calcium and phosphorus in bones combine to give firm support to the whole body. Minerals are found in body acids and alkalis; For example, chlorine is in the hydrochloric acid in the stomach. They are also essential constituents of certain hormones, for example, the iodine in the thyroxine produced by the thyroid gland.

Physiological functions of Minerals

  1. They are part of structures of the organism: skeleton, nails, hair, etc.
  2. They are regulatory elements (such as vitamins): muscle contraction, blood coagulation, etc.
  3. They participate in the formation of electrical potentials in cells, in osmotic processes and in the prevention of caries.

Minerals are widely distributed in food and are relatively resistant to technological and culinary treatments. They are not affected by light and heat, but they can be lost in leachates, in cooking waters, retained in fiber that is not absorbed, etc.

The mineral content is variable according to the origin of the food. In addition, there are some foods that contain substances that act as anti-nutrients preventing the absorption of minerals because they form complexes with them, such as the phytic acid present in many vegetables.

Important Minerals for Human Body

Iron (Fe)

Iron is one of the main components of blood. The quantity of iron is 50 mg in 100 ml of blood of the human body. It is stored in liver, spleen, bone and red blood cell. The plant source of iron is cauliflower leaves, leafy vegetables, neem leaves, figs, green banana, green vegetables, corn, wheat, nuts etc. Animal source is fish, meat, egg, liver etc. An adult male needs 9 mg, female need 28 mg, pregnant and lactating mother need 12-14 mg, children need 10 mg iron daily.

Physiological functions of Iron

Hemoglobin is one of the chief components of blood. Its purpose is to supply oxygen in the body. The quantity of hemoglobin reduces for blood reduction in the body. And hemoglobin reduction means the interruption of oxygen supply in the body. We feel tired and weak when we get less oxygen than the requirement. Besides this, some other problems may occur_

  1. Anemia attacks for its deficiency.
  2. Iron deficiency can cause the change of neuro synthesis resulting lack of concentration.
  3. The body becomes tired and fatigue as the requirement of oxygen is not fulfilled for the iron deficiency in the body.
  4. The skin loses resplendence quickly for less quantity of red blood cell in the body and skin becomes pale and dry.
  5. The muscle becomes stiff for iron deficiency. Normal contraction and expansion of muscles are interrupted. Muscles are tensed even with light exercise or sudden hard labor.
  6. The nail becomes thin and fragile for shortness of blood cause of iron deficiency.
  7. Frequent sickness is another reason for blood shortness. Iron deficiency is one of the main cause of disease cough and cold to disease of respiration.
Precaution

Animal protein plays a vital function to fulfill the iron deficiency. Red meat is the best source of iron. Side to side; liver, the yolk is the same user to prevent anemia. Besides, iron is found from plant source-arum spinach and green banana.  Watermelon and Cauliflower contain plenty of iron. Foods containing vitamin C along with cauliflower and vegetables is essential to eat while you are trying to get iron from a plant source.

Nutritionists advise to eat vitamin C type foods such as guava, gooseberry, orange etc. to get the iron from food properly. It is because Vitamin C type foods helps to absorb iron which comes from plant source in the body.

Calcium (Ca)

Calcium is one of the chief components for bone and teeth of the body. 2 percent of the total weight in the body is calcium. Calcium is comparatively more than any other minerals in the body. 90% of it is stored in bone and teeth adjoining with phosphorus and magnesium. Calcium is available in pulses, black gram, parmesan, soybean, cauliflower, carrot, fenugreek, drumstick, spinach, red spinach, arum spinach, pomelo and some fruits like beetroot, grapes, and watermelon. Besides, it is available in plant source, milk, egg, milk made foods, small fishes, dry fish etc in the animal source.

The Physiological Source of Calcium

Specialists advise, adult people need to get 700-milligram calcium daily. But during pregnancy and lactating mother need it more. It is necessary to intake vitamin D along with vitamin C. It helps to absorb calcium in the body. 99% of calcium of the human body is found in bone and teeth.

Calcium strengthens bone in the body. It keeps muscle contraction and heart function normal. It helps to control blood pressure. It plays a vital function in hormone secretion and various cells division in the body. It helps to coagulate blood of any wound. It protects the body from chemical pollution. Calcium is one of the chief elements to save our body from any poisoning of heavy metal, especially who are working or living in industrial areas. People who live in a city like Dhaka where shisha is in the air should take calcium regularly.

Calcium Deficiency Disease
  1. Rickets disease may happen for calcium deficiency. Bone becomes soft and weak for this disease.
  2. Bone fracture occurs for calcium deficiency. The risk of bone fracture increases after the menopause of women. So much calcium intake is essential in adolescence.
  3. Osteoporosis occurs in middle age for calcium deficiency.
  4. Teeth also weaken for the deficiency of the mineral.
  5. Tiffany disease of muscle may occur with an attack of hypocalcemia for calcium deficiency. Besides, pink or red rash may be seen on the face. So, we should take calcium-rich foods to avoid these problems.

Phosphorus (p)

In regards to quantity, phosphorus is next to calcium among other mineral salts in the body. Phosphorus, like calcium, is another chief component of bone. It is stored in bone, liver, and blood. It participates the main function to produce nucleic acid and nucleoprotein and also produces energy absorbing carbohydrate. Phosphorus is available in plant source– grains, beans, broad beans, cowpeas, chickpeas, nuts etc. It is also available in the animal source like egg, milk, fish, meat, liver etc.

Physiological functions of Phosphorus

The nutritious components of phosphorus maintain the activities of cell properly. It strengthens calcium management, bone, and teeth. It develops the action of the kidney and helps to produce ATP. ATP provides cell energy.

Anemia, muscle pain, improper bone construction, stiffness, hungry reluctance, and disease prevention ability can be reduced for phosphorus deficiency.

The Foods Contain Phosphorus

Wheat bread, chicken, Chicken liver, fish, pumpkin seeds, cheese, nuts, chickpeas, bean seeds, are the source of phosphorus. You should add these in your diet.

You can find phosphorus 121-130 milligram in cooked potato with peel, 124 mg in mushroom, 138-177 milligram in cooked oatmeal 3/4 cups 217-272 milligram in one cup milk, 238-246 milligram in ¾ cup yogurt, 126-157 milligram in cooked two eggs.

The Pediatric Dosage for Minors
  • 0 to 6 months: 100 milligram
  • 7 to 12 months: 275 milligram
  • 1 to 3 years: 460 milligram
  • 4 to 8 years: 500 milligram
  • 9 to 18 years: 1250 milligram
Phosphorus Dosage for Adult
  • 19 years above: 700 milligram
  • Pregnant and Lactating Mother below 18: 1250 milligram
  • Pregnant and above 18 years and aged women: 700 milligram

Magnesium

Foods with many components are needed to keep the body fit and healthy. It is another important component. Magnesium helps the body to fit and healthy. It is also necessary to keep heart well, control diabetes, control blood pressure, remove insomnia, and reduce mental stress and migraine pain. But most people are not aware of the important component. It is very easy to remove the magnesium deficiency in the body taking some special foods. Let us know the magnesium-rich foods. These foods are essential to be available in the daily diet.

  • Green leafy vegetables such as spinach, broccoli, lettuce. High level of Magnesium is available in these foods.
  • Food Grain: Barley, cornmeal, Oat Bran, wheat bread, white rice.
  • Nuts: Pee nuts, almond, Chinese nuts are a good source of magnesium.
  • Beans: Broad beans, Seeds of bean, cowpeas, chickpeas.
  • Fish: High level of magnesium is available in almost all types of fishes.
  • Fruits: Plenty of magnesium is available in some fruits like banana, avocado. Besides these, pumpkin is one of the main sources of it.
  • Tomato Paste: Adding tomato paste to cook vegetables or meat is one of the easy processes to add magnesium in the diet chart.
  • Spices: Various types of paprika, mint, parsley leaves and lemongrass contain plenty of magnesium. These do not fulfill the magnesium requirement only, also makes a different taste.
  • Milk Made Foods: Plenty of magnesium is available in a maximum of milk made foods. Pasteurized milk and yogurt is the best.
  • Drink: Coco and coffee are sources of magnesium.
  • Dark Chocolate: A good news for chocolate lovers is magnesium can fulfill the daily magnesium requirement.
Physiological functions of Magnesium

Magnesium is an essential mineral for the body. It keeps muscles’ activity good, works to keep the body active. 19 to 30 years’ age women should take 310-milligram Magnesium. Above 30 years’ age, women need to take 320 milligrams. Magnesium is found more in bone and teeth. Magnesium is essential for various activities of the body like to keep blood pressure and heartbeat normal, to maintain metabolism rate, strengthen bone, body protection, control sugar level in blood and protein production.

Various physical problems such as insomnia, high blood pressure, muscles’ tense, migraine, anxiety, osteoporosis, and heart problems occur for magnesium deficiency.

Usually, minerals are stored in bone, teeth and blood cell of the human body. These minerals are essential to keep muscles, nerves, and heart in good condition. Heart, muscles, and nerves can be weaker for its’ deficiency. Let us see at a glance The Benefit of taking magnesium-rich foods.

Heart

Magnesium is a crucial component for some organs in the human body. It is essential for blood circulation and keeps the heart good. Many problems relating to heart may occur for consuming insufficient magnesium rich food.

Colon Cancer

Research shows colon cancer risk increases with intake of spicy foods. Magnesium can reduce the risk of colon cancer.

Prevents Type 2 Diabetes

Many researches show diabetes type 2 can be prevented with consuming magnesium rich food.

Strong Bone and Teeth

Magnesium is useful as calcium for strong bone and teeth.

Removes Insomnia

You can get relief from insomnia consuming the required quantity of vitamin B6 and magnesium.

Relief from Frustration

Deficiency of magnesium can cause frustration. So, you have to intake magnesium rich food to be away from frustration.

Magnesium is an important component to keep your health good. It is mandatory to keep magnesium rich food in your daily diet.  As it is important to eat regularly, it is also important to know what components are important for you. Magnesium rich foods help in organ, chemical reaction in the body.

Potassium

Potassium is an essential chemical component of the human body. It is known as electrolytes or the main energy supplier in blood. Many complicated troubles like high blood pressure, heart diseases, weakness, obesity, lethargy, insomnia may happen for potassium deficiency. Several times diarrhea or vomiting may cause of potassium deficiency.

Potassium keeps the balance of water in blood and tissue, increases muscles and energy. It converts glucose into glycogen storing in the liver, what is required for excess energy. Nerve system can be hampered for potassium deficiency. Skin becomes dry and skin disease may occur for its’ deficiency.

Specialists advise eating natural potassium-rich foods in place of supplement to fulfill the deficiency of potassium. It is available in various vegetables and fruits. Spinach, Lettuce, broccoli, bean seeds, tomato, potato, orange, apple, banana, nuts, fish, green coconut, are rich in potassium. Potassium deficiency can be removed by consuming these foods.

Sea fishes like tuna and salmon, egg, milk, date, avocado, chicken breast contain plenty of potassium. Besides these, nuts and pistachios contain much potassium. Potassium-rich foods prevent high blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, arthritis, cancer, digestive disorder, and infertility. It is mandatory for a pregnant woman to intake a fixed quantity of potassium daily. Keep in mind that the notorious value of potassium is decreased into half if it is cooked. So try to have uncooked potassium-rich foods, or you can bake in the oven.

Physiological functions of Potassium

Potassium is one of the important minerals for the human body. It helps to keep the activity of muscles and nerves. It keeps the balance of electrolysis and acid-alkali. Contraction and expansion of muscle, the exhilaration of nerves depend on a sufficient quantity of potassium.  It helps to control blood pressure and keeps carbohydrate stored. A teenage girl may have high blood pressure problems in later age for potassium deficiency in their adolescence.

Electrolyte group of minerals is constructed with potassium, sodium, and chloride. It is called electrolyte as it produces electric drowning in water. Potassium is especially important to control the action of muscles and nerves. How fast and how much our muscles can be contracted or expanded; and how much excitement our nerves can tolerate depends on the presence of sufficient potassium.

Potassium Deficiency Diseases

Fixed quantity of potassium is required for the proper action of each cell. You will feel always tired of the lacking of sufficient potassium.

Potassium reduces pressure on nerves. So much eating of processed food means to reduce potassium quantity in your body with your own choice.

  • Potassium ensures contraction and expansion of muscles.
  • Insufficient potassium causes of muscles’ weakness and tense.
  • Fluctuation of heartbeat may cause of many reasons, but potassium deficiency is one of the reasons.
  • You may suffer from dizziness for potassium deficiency.
  • Potassium deficiency slowdowns body activities. So constipation may be a symptom of potassium deficiency.
  • As potassium plays function for the action of the nerve system, stiffness in your body may happen for its deficiency.

Sodium

Sodium helps cell membrane construction properly. If the membrane is harmed, then the cell also harmed to a great extent. The daily requirement of Sodium is 70-80 mEq. Sodium is mixed with blood. High quantity of sodium goes into the blood. Low quantity of sodium goes into a cell. This balancing of sodium keeps the cell healthy and lively. Life comes to a standstill without it.

Body keeps the sodium level accurate with its own process. Sodium rich food is necessary for misbalance of sodium due to sickness or other issues. Sufficient quantity of sodium is available in all types of food. It is a wrong conception that salt intake can satisfy the sodium requirement. Rather it harms the kidney. Drink 3 liters’ water daily. Misbalance of sodium can occur for more or less of water drinking.

Sodium Rich Foods

Sodium is available with various quantities in all types of food. It keeps the body fit and ensures natural growth. Sodium mixing with chlorine can protect liquid hole comes from tissue attached with blood vessels. It participates in supplying various elements throughout the body.

Sea Salt, Soya Sauce, Bread, Cheese, milk, egg of hen, beef, oysters, crabs, beat, potato, cabbage, banana, date, carrot, Salty water fish are the source of sodium.

Physiological functions of Sodium

Our blood is salty for much existence of sodium. This sodium plays a vital function from keeping a balance of liquid in the body to the action of nerves-blood vessels and control blood pressure.

  • The main purpose of sodium is to keep the balance of water and salt on the best level.
  • It controls the action of the kidney and keeps the nerve cell related action normal.
  • It maintains other minerals being dissolved in the blood and takes participation in the production of gastric liquid.
  • It also works to keep the balance of acid-base in necessary supportive phase and provides various impact on the body.
  • It controls the action of muscles and nerves system and keeps blood osmolality range normal.

2500 mg sodium is needed daily for the human body. It is an important constructive component for extracellular liquid.

Sodium Deficiency Problems

Many diseases like nausea, dullness, weakness and senselessness may occur for insufficient sodium.  Less symptom may occur for less deficiency if the insufficiency is on the high extent the person may become senseless.

The reasons for which salt can be reduced from the body are mentioned below.

Salty water and every component can be reduced if the liquid is reduced from the body for any reason. Excess vomiting, diarrhea, excess sweating are the cause of salty water loss or loss of salty water for taking any medicine. Reducing salt density as a result of excess liquid storage harms the body.

Water is stored in the body and salt density is lessened if the body fails to extract water for the trouble of kidney and liver. Salt can be lessened for trouble in the secretion of ADH hormone from the brain, that keeps balance of liquid and salt. Usually, it occurs for brain injury, infection, tumor, and stroke.

Lessening of sodium can cause the destruction of the balance of liquid as it plays a vital function in maintaining the blood pressure, balance of liquid, activities of nerves and brain.  As a result, headache, weakness, drowsiness, lessening of sensibility, attitude disorders, even convulsion may happen. The patient has the risk to be senseless or coma.

Prevention

Prevention is always better than a precaution. Some precautions as sodium cannot be reduced.

  1. Need to keep attention as water and salt cannot be reduced especially in hot weather.
  2. Need to get plenty of water, saline, lime water, fruit juice to fulfill the insufficiency of salt and water.
  3. It is wise to drink much normal and cold water or drink and not having much tea or coffee.
  4. It is mandatory to fulfill the insufficiency of liquid by taking oral saline or pushing saline injection in the vein if liquid gets out for diarrhea or vomiting.
  5. If the body is made cold before getting water after the physical exercise, the body can help to balance the electrolytic absorbing water in the body.
  6. It goes into the body directly taking a bath with magnesium sulfate mixed water.
  7. Persons practicing physical exercise on a high extent especially players should take drink or juice mixed with potassium and chloride after each 15 to 20 minutes.

It is must to keep sodium-rich food in daily diet as sodium plays an important function from balancing the liquid in the body to activities of nerves and blood vessels and controlling the blood pressure.

Chlorine

Chlorine is another important mineral related to sodium. Chlorine deficiency occurs for the wastage of sodium in the human body and alkalinity occurs in the body. Salt, fish, and meat are the source of chlorine with sodium. Chlorine keeps the balance of water, acid, and alkali of the liquid as the chief electric of the external liquid of the cell. It provides acidity in digestive liquid and helps in the enzyme process. So, the requirement chlorine is fulfilled with the fulfillment of sodium.

Sulfur

Sulfur is another important mineral for you. It is found in various tissues of the human body and plays an important function in the body. It helps to prevent bacteria and protect from poisonous things. Moreover, sulfur is essential for the development of compound tissues. It also helps to keep the integrity of the skin.

Cauliflower, cabbage, broccoli, banana, beetroot, garlic, onion etc. and protein-rich foods such as fish, meat, duck, nuts are the source of sulfur. An egg is not only the source of protein; it has a high level of sulfur. Each egg contains 0.26 mg of sulfur.  This food works as the source of sulfur for the cells of your body.

Physiological functions of Sulfur

Sulfur is essential for the metabolism process of our body. Metabolism process is interrupted for its deficiency. The daily requirement of sulfur is 330 mg for the human body. It is necessary to keep sulfur in the daily diet to have healthy skin, building and maintaining of hair and nail. Sulfur makes obstruction for colon and lungs cancer and works as the agent of cancer protection.

You can choose the sulfur-rich foods with your own choice for your daily diet to ensure the requirement of sulfur in your body.

Iodine

Iodine is another crucial component for the body. We do not pay importance on iodine even knowing the slogan “Eat iodine if you want to stay healthy.” It is a useful component to protect goiter, development of intelligence and body health. The essential component Iodine of our bodies cannot be made with its own process. So we need to fulfill the iodine requirement from iodized salt and iodine rich foods.

Let’s know the common source of iodine and its necessity for our body.

Using iodized salt is the main and easy way to prevent the problems of iodine deficiency. This salt is made for marketing in a moisture resistant packet. It is needed to preserve keeping in an airtight bottle. The quality of iodine is removed away for washing with water.

Iodized salt needs to be kept out of reach of water vapor, sunlight and high temperature. Its color turns into blackish purple in touch with lemon juice. Anybody can identify the iodized salt in this way. It is difficult to cure completely if iodine deficiency occurs. So, prevention is more desirable than treatment. So, everyone should be aware of the importance of iodine, troubles for its deficiency and precaution of the deficiency.

Many of our daily foods are the super source of iodine. So, please know some easy source of iodine.

Milk

Almost all nutrients are available with less or much quantity in milk. 56 microgram iodine is available in one cup milk.

Prawn

Sea Fishes usually are a good source of iodine. This tasty food provides iodine along with protein and calcium.

Tuna Fish

Canned or opened tuna fish is found in the market. Iodine is available with much quantity in canned fish.

Boiled Egg

A boiled egg contains 12 microgram iodine along with vitamin A, D, Zinc, Calcium, and antioxidant.

Sour Yogurt

One cup sour yogurt fulfills 58 percent of your daily iodine requirement.

Banana

Banana is unique for its nutritious value. You can get 3 microgram iodine along with potassium.

Strawberry

13 microgram iodine is available with plenty of vitamin and minerals in one cup of strawberry.

Corn

You can get 14 microgram iodine from a half cup of corn.

Green Leaves

Add spinach and lettuce in your daily diet. It contains magnesium and various minerals. Green leaves keep your thyroid healthy. So the body will be fit.

Nuts

Eat nuts daily, especially Almond. Pumpkin seeds are also useful. Iron and selenium are available in it, which keeps thyroid healthy.

Himalayan Salt

Himalayan salt is known as iodized salt. It keeps much iodine than normal salt.

Potato

Potato is a good source of iodine. Boiled potato is full of iodine. 60 microgram iodine is available in a middle size boiled potato.

Seaweed

Seaweed contains plenty of iodine. It is a super component to fulfill your daily requirement of iodine. You will be surprised knowing that, 7-gram dry Seaweed contain 4500 microgram iodine.

Bread

Bread can be a good source to fulfill your daily iodine requirement. 45 microgram iodine is available in 2 slices of white bread that can fulfill 30 % of your daily iodine requirement.

So, we will not depend only on iodized salt. Rather, add the foods in your daily diet.

Physiological functions of Iodine

The necessity of iodine for growing up children and pregnant women does not need to be explained. An adult person needs 150 micrograms iodine. This quantity can be found from water and regular diet. Sea fish, cod-liver oil, milk, meat, food grain and vegetables contain sufficient iodine.

Iodine is called as ‘Trace Mineral’. It helps to construct thyroid hormone in the body. Many complications may occur failing to consume sufficient iodine. Iodine deficiency can effect on natural growth and construction of the body, especially it can be a health risk for pregnant women. If pregnant women do not consume sufficient iodine, their children can be born with an intellectual disability or hormone problems. Besides, thyroid hormone has the main function for body growth and digestion and it is associated with iodine. Deficiency of iodine is responsible for lacking intelligence and learning. Thyroid gland becomes larger with inflammation for the excess of iodine deficiency. The thyroid gland is swelling as it tries to store iodine from blood, and we know this inflammation as scrofula. Deficiency of iodine can create a prolonged problem for a child’s growth.

Symptoms of Iodine Deficiency

Iodine deficiency may cause of scrofula. Besides, lethargy, obesity, muscle pain may occur. Dryness of skin and fragility of nails may occur for insufficient iodine.

Immaturity of brain and interruption of the child’s growth in the mother’s womb may occur for iodine deficiency. The children of mothers with iodine deficiency are always inferior to others to learn new things.

Pregnant mother affected with scrofula and baby can be born with physical and mental disability.

Chance of miscarriage and birth of a dead child of a mother with scrofula is high.

Thyroid gland is crucial for the human body. The thyroid is one of the crucial internal glands that effects the whole process of the body. Iodine is an essential component of the human body. We need to have a clear conception about the mineral for the proper action of the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland controls our physical growth and metabolism. You may suffer from the following symptoms for iodine deficiency.

  • Fatigue,
  • Drowsiness,
  • High Cholesterol,
  • Depression,
  • Inflammation of Thyroid gland other troubles,
  • Chance of complication during delivery may occur for mother’s iodine deficiency.

Iodine is an important component for physical fitness, development of intelligence and to prevent scrofula. Especially, the necessity of iodine is unlimited for growing up a child and a pregnant woman. Please add iodine in your daily diet as iodine deficiency can occur several physical problems including nervous weakness, several physical disorders and even severe problems of mental disabilities. Keep attention whether your family members are getting a sufficient quantity of iodine daily.

Copper

An adult person has 100 to 120-milligram copper in his body. Plenty of copper is available in heart, liver, kidney, and brain whereas it is available in almost all cells of the human body. The normal quantity of copper is 0.15 milligram in per 100 ml blood.

Animal Source of Copper

Liver of animal, heart, egg, and snail are the animal source of copper. Besides, plenty of copper is available in nuts, lentils, soya bean, vegetables, and food grains. 1.5 to 2.0 copper is sufficient in the daily diet.

Physiological functions of Copper

Copper is necessary for the construction of bone and nerve muscles and overall body growth. Copper affects oxidation and breakdown of several enzyme processes. These are peroxidase, cytochrome oxidase, phenol, etc. These enzymes help to produce heat energy, creation of melanin, a pigment to transfer iron into Hb.

Copper, existing in Ceruloplasminaccelerate the supply of iron into Hb. Copper plays function for adding iron in transferrin and transmitting of iron to tissue. Iron insufficiency and anemia occur due to copper deficiency. Intake of copper can remove the anemia.

Copper Deficiency diseases
  1. Immunity system reduces for copper deficiency. Metabolism of copper is interrupted for Wilson’s disease, an inborn disease. This disease interrupts Ceruloplasmin construction. Copper starts to be stored in various tissues such as brain, liver, and kidney. Poisoning occurs in these tissues and these are damaged. As a result, hepatitis, cirrhosis and kidney diseases occur.
  2. Muscles synthesis cannot be processed properly for copper deficiency. Osteoporosis and bone fragility may occur.
  3. Anemia occurs for interruption of metabolism and supply of iron in the body due to copper deficiency.

Zinc

Zinc is found in most cells of the human body. But it is available much in bone muscles and bone. Zinc is an inevitable component to construct red blood cells and few enzymes. Total quantity of zinc is 1.4 to 2.3 gram in the body of an adult person. Zinc helps about 20 types of metalloenzymes.

Various plant source like crops, pulses, nuts, oilseeds and animal source such as fish, meat, liver, and egg are the source of zinc. Children require 3 to 5 milligram, adults 15 milligram and pregnant women require 20-milligram zinc daily.

Physiological functions of Zinc

Zinc helps the following actions in our body.

  1. Maintains the fertility,
  2. Helps for bone construction,
  3. Helps in the action of various enzymes,
  4. Zinc plays a vital function in brain construction and development,
  5. Helps to recover the wounds.
Troubles for Zinc Deficiency

Growth and maturity of children are interrupted for prolonged zinc deficiency. Brain development is interrupted. Children’s taste of tongue cannot be constructed and lessen the hunger. Malnutrition, kidney disease and dysentery occur for zinc deficiency.

Fluoride

Fluoride is a negative ion of fluorine.it is represented with the chemical formula F. It is found in nature with trace quantity. It occurs naturally in air, soil, stones, fresh water, sea water, and various foods. Fluoride plays a crucial function in the minerals of bone and teeth; it is an important process to keep these hard and strong.

Seafoods and water of many areas are the sources of fluoride. The daily requirement of fluoride of our body is 1.5 to 4.0 milligram.

Physiological functions of Fluoride

It works to produce the enamel of teeth and helps to create hardness of bone and teeth. Decaying of teeth and osteoporosis occur for its deficiency.

Polonium

Polonium is another important mineral for the human body. It is found in liver, kidney, heart, crops, and vegetables. An adult person needs to get 0.05 to 0.2-milligram Polonium daily. It is one of the important components of glutathione per oxygen enzyme.  Heart disease, damage of liver and muscle’s weakness occur for Polonium deficiency.

Friends, so far, we have known the crucial minerals of the human body, their source and Physiological functions of these in the human body. It is impossible for the body to be active without these nutritious elements or minerals. So, it is necessary to pay attention to the presence of these components with sufficient quantity in our daily diet. These minerals and other components can go through the body by consuming foods and keep the body healthy and free from disease.


Water

Water is an important component of food. Water is inevitable for the human body. Body construction and internal activities cannot be continued without water. 60% to 70% of our body weight is water. Almost foods contain more or less water. Only by drinking water, we fulfill the requirement of water.

Water

Physiological functions of Water

Source of Water in the Body

  1. Drinking water, soft or hot drink like tea, coffee, milk, juice.
  2. Various foods- vegetables and fruits.

Physiological functions of Water

Water is an essential component for us to live in. 60 to 70 percent of the human body is water. The necessity of water is immense for body construction. Water is necessary to construct our blood, flesh, nerves, teeth, bone etc. Water is available inside and outside of bone, flesh, skin, nail and teeth. Body cell construction and physiological activities of the body is not possible at all without water.

Water controls all internal activities of the body.  Water supplies various components of body construction throughout the body. No chemical reaction can be processed without water. It works as a diluent in the body.  Various minerals are dissolved in water. Water helps in digestion and adsorption of components of food. Water removes urea, ammonia etc. poisonous elements created by metabolism, like sweating and urine.

Food digestion process is continued dissolving in water. Again, food components are absorbed by the body being dissolved in water. Blood is liquid for water, that plays a vital function in blood circulation. Constipation occurs and metabolism process and blood circulation can be interrupted due to water deficiency. So, we must drink fresh water daily. Water controls the temperature by body sweating and vaporization.

Water in the body is balanced if the quantity of consumption and reduction of water is the same.  An adult person needs to eat 2-3 liter water daily. It is because the same quantity of water is reduced daily from our body. Dehydration may cause hot weather and hard labor. Immense thirst, interruption of blood circulation and skin may crimp for water deficiency. Nerves and muscles become weak for water deficiency.

Water deficiency creates diseases. Senselessness may occur if water decreases 10% in the body. If suddenly much water gets away with stool and vomit for diarrhea and cholera; the patient needs to drink saline or salt-water urgently to fulfill the water deficiency. Oral saline keeps the balance of salt and water in the body.

Water is an inevitable component of food. Water is just next to oxygen to save life. Human can live a few weeks without food but cannot live a few days without water. So, it is a must to drink sufficient water for a healthy life.


Conclusion

Nutritious food is required daily for good health. It should be as per the requirement of age, labor, occupation, and health. It must be rich with all the important components. As a protein, carbohydrate, fat is needed for construction of new tissues of the body, body growth and increase of the ability of physical activities, in the same way, vitamins and mineral salt are needed for physical activities and good health.

A large part of our population is the victim of malnutrition. The main reason for the malnutrition is poverty, superstition, and ignorance. The main problems of malnutrition are malnutrition for protein-calorie deficiency, scrofula for iodine deficiency, night-blindness for vitamin A deficiency and anemia for iron deficiency.

An ill-nourished child cannot be developed mentally that is alarming for the whole nation. They cannot participate in any developing activities in the later stage of their lives. It effects on family, society, and country. So we need to make our daily diet plan assuring the availability of all components in our daily diet for our own well-being and the well-being of Nations.


References:

  1. বিজ্ঞান নবম ও দশম শ্রেণি, জাতীয় শিক্ষাক্রম ও পাঠ্য পুস্তক বোর্ড, ঢাকা
  2. উচ্চমাধ্যমিক গার্হস্থ্য অর্থনীতি, দ্বিতীয়পত্র, একাদশ-দ্বাদশ শ্রেণি, জাতীয় শিক্ষাক্রম ও পাঠ্য পুস্তক বোর্ড, ঢাকা
  3. খাদ্য ও পুষ্টিবিজ্ঞান, শাহীন আহমেদ, আইডিয়াল লাইব্রেরি, মে ২০০০, ঢাকা
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  5. http://10minuteschool.com
  6. https://bangla.bdnews24.com
  7. https://www.ntvbd.com
  8. http://www.beshto.com
  9. https://www.priyo.com
  10. https://deshiranna.com
  11. http://archive1.ittefaq.com.bd
  12. https://bangla.bdnews24.com
  13. https://deho.tv
  14. http://bonikbarta.net
  15. https://www.eibela.com
  16. http://www.bd-pratidin.com
  17. https://mamaclub.info
  18. http://www.beshto.com
  19. https://bn.blogbehealthy.com
  20. https://www.priyo.com
  21. http://dailynayadiganta.com
  22. https://www.shajgoj.com
  23. https://bn.lifehealthdoctor.com
  24. https://daktarbhai.com


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